With 43 attacks claiming over 200 victims, mass killings reached a forty-year high in 2019. Defined as the killing of four or more individuals (excluding the offender) within 24 hours, mass murders are incredibly rare events that account for less than 1% of all homicides (Krouse & Richardson, 2015). Despite their rarity, mass killings disproportionately impact policy due to widespread public concern.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) continues to be a global problem. Previous studies suggest that a high number of children are exposed to IPV during their childhood (Osofsky, 2003; Straus, 1992). Prevalence rates are available, for example, from the United States (25.0%; Finkelhor et al., 2015) or the United Kingdom (24.0%; Radford et al., 2011).The increasing international research, focusing on children who witness IPV, indicates that these circumstances might influence children in different ways. Studies indicate that children growing up in violent homes have more problems (e.g.