Abstract: To meet increasingly stringent automotive emissions standards, further improvements in catalytic converter design are necessary. Current automotive catalyst systems are effective at eliminating emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx) once the catalyst reaches operational temperature (~200 °C). NOx emitted at lower catalyst temperatures now comprises most of the NOx released during a typical test cycle. Referred to as “the cold start problem” this issue has come to the forefront of automotive catalyst development, as mitigating these emissions is necessary to further reduce automotive emissions. Passive NOx adsorbers present an appealing solution to the cold start problem, these being a class of materials that chemisorb exhaust components such as NOx, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons at near-ambient temperatures, and then desorb these compounds once the downstream catalyst has reached operational temperature. An effective passive NOx adsorber must have several properties: high NOx adsorption at near-ambient temperatures, near-complete NOx desorption at temperatures within the operational range, high thermal stability, and resistance to automotive exhaust components at high temperatures.
Pd-exchanged zeolites have shown promise for deployment as Passive NOx adsorbers, though much remains to be understood about their adsorption chemistry and deactivation. In-situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) provides a convenient probe of adsorbed species, most automotive exhaust components possessing IR-active chemical bonds. By examining the evolution of IR bands under various pretreatments and adsorbates, the overall Pd-speciation and adsorptive zeolite sites of each material can be characterized, and the identities of IR bands can be deduced. In this work, microreactor-MS analysis of the adsorption and desorption behavior of these materials was also examined, these results being coupled with in-situ DRIFTS temperature programmed desorption (TPD) to correlate desorption events with specific adsorbed species.
A pair of zeolite frameworks of similar Si/Al ratio but differing pore size were examined, Beta zeolite (BEA) and Chabazite (CHA) representing a medium- and small-pore framework, respectively. The effect of Pd-loading on BEA was examined, as well as the various deactivation pathways and active sites of each material.
KEYWORDS: Passive NOx Adsorber, Automotive Catalysis, Environmental Catalysis, Palladium, Zeolite, DRIFTS